Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular (two-eyed) vision disorder in which the eyes do not work at near easily. with convergence insufficiency, controlled studies have not been performed, and a clinical bias exists against prescribing vision therapy for adults with convergence insufficiency. Convergence insufficiency (CI) affects 2.25-8.3% of the population and is characterized by an inability to converge the eyes smoothly as the object of regard moves from distance to near (Scheiman et al. Convergence is the coordinated movement and focus of our two eyes inward on close objects, including phones, tablets, computers, and books. If the eyes do drift out, the person is likely to have double vision. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is characterized by a decreased ability to converge the eyes and maintain binocular fusion while focusing on a near target. If the NPC is more reduced when using a non accommodative target, then the person may have a True CI; however, if NPC is reduced […] According to the research findings: After 12 weeks of PPT: CI scores only decreased from 29.3 to 25.9. To study the effectiveness of pencil pushups treatment (PPT) for the treatment of convergence insufficiency in a clinical situation. Blepharoclonus; Convergence Insufficiency; Slow Hypometric Saccades in all directions of gaze; Saccadic Breakdown of Smooth Pursuit Creator Shirley H. Wray, M.D., Ph.D., FRCP, Professor of Neurology Harvard Medical School, Director, Unit for Neurovisual … METHODS Sixty adult males over the age of 40 years (median age, 65 years) with convergence insufficiency … Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision disorder affecting 4- 6% of the population.1,2,3,4 Some have estimated its prevalence to be as high as 8.3% in school-age children and university students. Patients often complain of eye strain when reading, closing one … Along the line is a range of "mixed bag" dysfunctions, either led by a fusional convergence problem at near or accommodative dysfunction. 3. This causes loss of proper binocular alignment and results either in exophoria or intermittent exotropia at near (Lavrich 2010). The scores were based on the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, which states that a score of 16 or higher is considered significant when diagnosing CI. CI is usually accompanied by a reduced near point of convergence (NPC), decreased convergence amplitudes or an exodeviation (usually > 10 prism diopters) at near. Do NPC both with and without an accommodative target. 5,6 In addition to causing discomfort with reading, CI has been Journal of the American Optometric Association, April; 70(4): 225-232, 1999.) At the other end, a "pseudo-convergence insufficiency (an accommodative dysfunction which has, as its most prominent feature, reduced convergence at near. Efficacy of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency in an adult male population. An eye teaming problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward when reading or doing close work (exophoria at near). 2005). 2. To differentiate between a True Convergence Insufficiency vs a Pseudo Convergence Insufficiency (underlying accommodative insufficiency issue), one can utilize NPC testing. It is one of many Vital Visual Skills learned during our early years, as we begin to make sense of the world and how to use our eyes to take it all in.. Convergence Insufficiency is a common problem with the development of these skills. From 29.3 to 25.9 29.3 to 25.9 both with and without an accommodative target double.. 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