A fabulous fluke of nature, a blue diamond is produced by the random presence of the atomic lattice-bound trace element boron within the stone’s carbon structure during its formation deep in the earth’s core. An African company recovers a rare blue diamond, thought to be worth $10m (£6.5m), from its mine in South Africa. By far one of the biggest producers, South Africa is our top pick for those of you wanting to know where can you find diamonds. Blue diamonds have intrigued scientists for decades, but the high value and rarity of these gems and their near lack of mineral inclusions have been major hurdles to research. GIA is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization. and weighs 45.52ct. Did You Know? Type Ia: Here the color is affected by hydrogen and you can expect secondary hues, or modifying colors as they’re referred to, with names like ‘greenish-blue’ or ‘grey-blue’. A 29.6-carat blue diamond is discovered in Cullinan mine in South Africa, which is famed for its production of the rare stones. You’ll get these details when you read through a diamond’s gemological grading report. Blue diamonds carry considerable price tags and much of their value is attributed to the fact that they’re so rare and that many people wish they can own one. The first significant production occurred in 1957 from the Mir kimberlite pipe and its adjacent placers. London—Five blue diamonds weighing between 10 and 26 carats were recovered in a single week from a famous diamond mine in South Africa. With diamonds, the stones belonging to the ‘Blue’ group are particularly hard to find in the market. We Buy Gold, Jewelry, Diamonds, And Gemstones. Type IIb diamonds have long remained a geological enigma, but new research published in the August 2, 2018 issue of Nature reveals they are “superdeep” diamonds, meaning they crystallized much deeper in the earth than most other gem diamonds. Figure 3: Inclusion of calcium silicate in a 0.21 carat blue diamond seen with the field view of 1.42 mm wide. Blue Diamonds; Percentage of Total Diamonds … Large-scale diamond mines are found in the country of Brazil. The gem quality diamond is classified as a Type IIb stone, which is among the rarest and most valuable diamonds. , but they’re definitely harder to find than pink gems. It's interesting to note that blue diamonds only typically fluoresce if they were found in Zimbabwe, according to The NCDIA. Type IIb diamonds have long remained a geological enigma, but new research published in the August 2, 2018 issue of Nature reveals they are “superdeep” diamonds, meaning they crystallized much deeper in the earth than most other gem diamonds. Diamonds also require polishing and if you want this for your small blue diamond—less then 3ct—you should use Israel’s exports. You can also travel to the Golconda mine in India, a place called Lesteng in Lesotho, or Zimbabwe to see where blue stones are mined. For other diamond-related objects found in Minecraft, see Diamond (Disambiguation). Captivating and enigmatic, blue diamonds are considered the rarest of them all. Remarkably, the boron atoms contained in these blue gems may have originally been derived from ancient oceans. Figure 2: Rough blue diamonds weighing between 0.7 and 3 carats each. This makes it the hardest conductor in existence. This notion is upended by the present discovery that blue boron-bearing diamonds are superdeep, in addition to the 2016 finding that relatively large and pure (CLIPPIR) diamonds are also superdeep. Required fields are marked *, Enter your details below and we will contact you back, [aweber listid=”5342734″ formid=”816229417″ formtype=”webform”], Perhaps part of the fascination of colored stones is that no two of these diamonds will be 100% similar. Blue diamonds are so rare, they comprise only about 0.02% mined diamonds but their beauty and value is such that they include some of the world’s most famous jewels. Taking a closer look at only blue diamonds, the ones with stronger hues are more difficult to find than others. South Africa is often considered the birthplace of diamond mining by many professionals. The, – They fall into the group of second-most scarce of all diamonds. In Africa, diamonds are found in Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Namibia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and Tanzania. In 2008, the Wittelsbach Diamond, a 35.56-carat (7.112 g) blue diamond once belonging to the King of Spain, fetched over US$24 million at a Christie's auction. On Sept. 30, Gem Diamonds’ Letšeng mine discovered not only the 12 ct. blue, but an 83.9 ct. white described as “exceptional quality.” The mine’s statement did not comment on the blue stone’s quality. You’ll see a price rise of 12%-17% most years and even with more stones coming onto the market, this saturation doesn’t prevent price hikes. Blue Diamonds Have a Surprising “Superdeep” Origin and a Link to Ancient Oceans. Prior to this study, no mineral inclusion had ever been identified in a type IIb diamond. They’ll be unique in the shade, with different characteristics in each one, but you can be sure they’re all eye-catching, scarce, and therefore also valuable. This is where they are most commonly found, although levels 16 and beyond can also house Diamonds. This new study reveals not only that type IIb diamonds are among the deepest diamonds ever found, but also that boron and maybe even water can be carried from the ocean deep into the mantle by the process of subduction. Let’s dive in. When seawater infiltrates the ocean floor, it causes chemical reactions that deposit boron into the oceanic lithosphere. You can also travel to the Golconda mine in India, a place called Lesteng in Lesotho, or Zimbabwe to see where blue stones are mined. Examining rough samples, such as these, can be a good opportunity to see inclusions, because inclusions are often skillfully cut and polished away to optimize the appearance of the faceted gem. Petra charged almost $1M/carat for a blue diamond that weighed in at 29.6ct, Reasons why you want GIA diamond certification. This is an extended abstract of the article ‘Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle,’ published in the journal Nature. The last time it was purchased Harry Winston bought it but donated it almost immediately to the Smithsonian where you can view it today. Earth’s mantle is that deep, hot layer between Earth’s crust and core. For larger stones, try Antwerp or New York. With diamonds, the stones belonging to the ‘Blue’ group are particularly hard to find in the market. By closing this banner or using this site you agree to our revised Privacy Notice, Terms of Service and Cookie Policy. Note: if a stone’s color was enhanced it won’t be able to perform this service. The connection with subducted oceanic lithosphere suggests that boron, responsible for the blue color in type IIb diamonds, may have been carried down from the earth’s surface. GIA Research Scientist Evan Smith is the lead author of the article, with co-authors Steven B. Shirey, Carnegie Institution for Science; Stephen H. Richardson, University of Cape Town; Fabrizio Nestola, University of Padova; Emma S. Bullock, Carnegie Institution for Science; Jianhua Wang, Carnegie Institution for Science; and Wuyi Wang, Gemological Institute of America. Price is always determined by the 4Cs combined, but you can expect to pay around $1M/carat or more if a vivid blue stone is larger than 3ct. The last significant discovery was a 20.08 carat blue gem found at the site in September 2019, which sold for $14.9 million to an anonymous buyer. For more information on the program and to register, visit symposium.GIA.edu. Cullinan mine is one of the world's most important sources of blue diamonds, according to the company. An even bigger diamond—the biggest blue ever found—was measured as 122.52ct. The … Type IIb: This refers to exceptional purity, referring to the absence of nitrogen impurities, or there are very few of them. In 2018, Gem Diamonds found a 910-carat diamond known as the "Lesotho Legend" at the Letseng mine that eventually sold for $40 million. Although these ideas were surprising, they may provide a logical explanation as to why blue diamonds are found at only a small number of mines. Thus, many of the world’s most expensive and dazzling gem diamonds are superdeep diamonds, making them invaluable physical samples from the convecting mantle hundreds of kilometers beneath our feet. They’re still novelties to own, partly because yearly so few of them are added to the diamond market: usually only 2 to 4 in a given year. Scientists now think they’ve figured out how the boron got there. That’s rare! Until recently, it was widely held that superdeep diamonds are always small and never of gem quality. So, they’re not as rare as red ones or violet. – A 29.6-carat blue diamond that was sold, rough, for $25 million. Blue diamonds are among the rarest diamonds out there, and a mine in Lesotho just hit the jackpot with the discovery of a 12 ct. one. Many of the inclusions in the blue diamonds that Smith and his colleagues examined have coexisting methane and hydrogen as a thin layer surrounding the solid minerals, providing evidence of diamond growth from such a boron-enriched hydrous fluid. The famous Hope diamond is a perfect example of this blue diamond variety. Perhaps part of the fascination of colored stones is that no two of these diamonds will be 100% similar. On Monday, a rare 20.08 carat blue diamond was found in the Cullinan Diamond Mine, 40km east of Pretoria, Petra Diamonds announced. This one was first known as the ‘Perfect Blue’ before it was purchased by Harry Winston in 2014. At this great depth, the increased temperature and pressure break down the hydrous minerals, which then release a boron-enriched fluid that triggers diamond growth. Diamonds have been found in Russia as far back as the 18th century. A remarkable oval blue diamond weighing over 20 carats has been unveiled by the Okavango Diamond Company - the biggest blue diamond discovery ever made in Botswana. Blue diamonds are among the rarest of gems. By mining into one of these kimberlite dikes, or kimberlite pipes, diamonds may be uncovered. It is believed that pink diamonds were originally colorless diamonds that had their structures deformed and altered while coming up to the Earth’s surface. Natural diamond sources have been discovered in approximately 35 different countries around the World across several continents. They’re still novelties to own, partly because yearly so few of them are added to the diamond market: usually only 2 to 4 in a given year. After being polished and being made into a 12 carat stone it was named ‘Blue Moon’. The inclusions also show that, at this great depth, the diamonds grew in the presence of ocean crust which was carried down to the lower mantle by the conveyor-belt-like process of subduction. Pink diamonds are also found in Brazil, Russia, Siberia, South. This one was found way back in the 1600s and in 2011 a buyer paid $24.3M for it. According to NCDIA, the latter is the only place you’ll find blue stones that fluoresce. The more intense the color of the blue diamond is, the more rare and expensive it is. The pear-shaped gem cost him $24.24 and its value is thanks to it being flawless and vivid blue in color. This is the second biggest fancy blue diamond and it comes in at 42.92ct. Miner Petra Diamonds Ltd. announced the recovery of the stones from the Cullinan Mine Wednesday, describing them as top color and clarity and noting they are not believed to have broken off the same rough diamond. Petra Diamonds purchased the 122.52 carat stone in a partnership with an anonymous polishing partner Since then, numerous diamondiferous pipes and alluvial deposits have been found. Your email address will not be published. This also applies to blue diamonds and you are born to thank for the particular color. Some would say it’s the most famous diamond known to man. It is obvious now that the Cullinan mine is the most important source for natural blue diamonds of the highest quality. The minerals identified in these inclusions are only found together at extremely high pressures, very deep in the earth, leading to the conclusion that type IIb diamonds formed at least as deep as the transition zone (410–660 km), reaching into the lower mantle (>660 km). So, they’re not as rare as red ones or violet colored diamonds, but they’re definitely harder to find than pink gems. It’s home to the Big Hole Diamond mine. For every 100 Picasso canvases that are available for bidding at auctions, you’ll only find a single blue diamond. However, systematic screening of diamonds submitted to GIA over two years made it possible to find and examine 46 type IIb diamonds with inclusions. But now, secrets of the scarcest stones in the world are coming to the surface. They’ll be unique in the shade, with different characteristics in each one, but you can be sure they’re all eye-catching, scarce, and therefore also valuable. Travel to Petra Diamonds’ mine in Cullinan, South Africa and there you’ll find the place where most of these blue gems are mined. In most colored stones, hues are the result of impurities inside. Remarkably, the boron atoms contained in these blue gems may … Blue diamonds are only found in a few mines around the world. Once, blue diamonds were mined in Indias famous Golconda mine as well. Diamonds are very rare and valuable minerals, found in caverns and chests, used to craft tools, armor, enchantment tables, jukeboxes, and Diamond Blocks. These mines include the Cullinan mine near Pretoria, South Africa, and the Argyle mine in Australia. Types refer to a diamond’s grading and you’ll come across: Another stone comparison experts make is to see how well gems handle heat & electricity conduction. You can also travel to the Golconda mine in India, a place called Lesteng in Lesotho, or Zimbabwe to see where blue stones are mined. © 2002 - document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); Gemological Institute of America Inc. GIA is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization. So, how do these stones get their attractive hues? According to NCDIA, the latter is the only place you’ll find blue stones that fluoresce. The most popular ones are vivid blues, but you’ll still pay a lot for light blue stones too. Both the colors, the chemical composition, AND the stories behind famous blue diamonds are interesting. Photo by Evan M. Smith. Their analyses suggest that sinking pieces of Earth’s crust ferried the boron deep down from … Blue diamonds are incredibly rare and can only be found in three areas of the world: Australia, South Africa, and India. According to NCDIA, the latter is the only place you’ll find blue stones that fluoresce. JOHANNESBURG - A South African diamond producer on Wednesday announced it had found five blue stones, considered to be among the world's rarest and most valuable, at its primary mine. But in the mantle, where diamonds grow, the concentration of boron is extremely low. They’ve captured people’s attention in the past and if you ever see them they’ll impress you too: Now we can wait in anticipation of the next blue diamonds that will be mined. With Diamonds, you’ll want to be searching in the 5-12 level range. Cullinan mine is one of the world’s most important sources of blue diamonds, according to the company. This new study proposes a model whereby some of this boron is subducted with hydrous (water-bearing) minerals down to the lower mantle. All rights reserved. Of course, the presence of kimberlite does not necessarily guarantee that the precious stones will be present, simply that the volcanic upsurge originated at sufficient depth that diamonds could have formed. The diamonds, which have very low levels of impurities, make up about 0.1% of all natural diamonds. Collectors and investors purchase the natural. This is a key observation for our understanding of mantle geochemistry and plate tectonic processes. Only about 0.02 percent of diamonds are blue, making them a rarity among rarities. Blue diamonds with a high carat weight such as 2 or 3 carat are even harder to come by, and thus extremely expensive. Boron is an element that is strongly concentrated at Earth’s surface. Where are diamonds found in Africa? This flawless stone cost $9.49M at an auction, which means the buyer paid the highest rate/carat ever recorded. In this department blue diamonds perform well, being the only diamonds able to do it. In this mine, situated close to Pretoria, many impressive stones were found. Who knows what the earth will still deliver? The most interesting diamonds, mainly blue but also oversized whites, that were found over the last few years were from the Cullinan mine. By studying the inclusions – small pieces of material trapped in the diamond during crystallization – the research team was able to deduce the host rock and depth where the diamonds grew. The blue diamonds – They fall into the group of second-most scarce of all diamonds. For comparison, this is approximately four times deeper than most other kinds of diamonds, which form near the base of old and thick continents at depths of about 150–200 km. Yet their blue hue comes from boron, an element not commonly found there. –  after it was cut and polished it was recorded as 31.06ct. Blue Diamond (building) a skyscraper in Miami, United States Blue Diamond, Kentucky, an unincorporated community in the United States Blue Diamond, Nevada, a census-designated place in Clark County, Nevada, United States Blue Diamond (Iceland), a tourist route in Iceland CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP. Diamonds of a different color, such as blue, are called fancy colored diamonds and fall under a different grading scale. An even bigger diamond—the biggest blue ever found—was measured as 122.52ct. For every 10,000 gem-quality diamonds found, only one possesses brilliant and coveted color. An alternative way of explaining the rarity is this: Eden Rachminov’s book “The Fancy Color Diamond Book” states that 0.1% of all diamonds that have the classification of ‘fancy colored’ get the ‘Type IIb Blue’ diamond label. All rights reserved. Found as a 41.11-carat rough stone in the Orapa mine operated by the producer Debswana, the jewel is the largest blue diamond ever found in Botswana. Boron particles absorb light yellow, resulting in a blue reflection. Type IIb diamonds are a rare variety of diamond distinguished by having boron within the crystal structure, which can impart an attractive blue color. While it is less common to discover these stones in other locations, they have been unearthed elsewhere, including the Golconda mine in India and the Lesteng mine in Lesotho. The vivid blue of the gem is quite striking. South Africa, Russia and Botswana are the main producers of gem diamond while Australia produces most of the industrial diamond. This mine was active from 1871 to 1914 and is believed to be the world’s largest hand-dug excavation. Africa, Tanzania, and even Canada. Collectors and investors purchase the natural blue diamonds at auctions & these events keep seeing record prices paid for blue stones. And it’s here that these diamonds are born. Comprehensive CAD/CAM For Jewelry Certificate, Advanced Laboratory-Grown Diamond Seminar, Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle. This inclusion is evidence that the diamond grew at extreme depths in the mantle. Rare blue diamond found in South Africa sold for £17m. Photo by Evan M. Smith. Famous Blue Diamonds The Okavango Blue. The boron content of type IIb diamonds is therefore unexpected and challenging to explain. Taking a closer look at only blue diamonds, the ones with stronger hues are more difficult to find than others. Similar to red diamonds, no one knows for sure how pink diamonds get their color. Where blue diamonds come from is a question that’s eluded scientists for centuries. Feeling blue. These are mine locations that were positioned above slab of deeply subducted oceanic crust when material from that great depth ascended rapidly to Earth's surface - without melting. As stated, not all blue diamonds are of the same hue, so you can expect various looks: Because of the different types of blues, they’re named accordingly to differentiate between them and you’ll find many descriptions on the market, such as ‘royal’ or ‘baby’. An even bigger diamond—the biggest blue ever found—was measured as 122.52ct. The famous Hope diamond is a perfect example of this blue diamond variety. South Africa continues to be one of the largest producers of diamonds in th… The blue diamond engagement ring, The blue diamond wedding ring, or if you have natural blue diamonds – they are rare to find and precious. Russia, Botswana and South Africa are the world’s major gem quality diamond producers and Australia is the major industrial diamond producer. Its hue is grey-blue and it has an interesting backstory: people believe it has a curse. 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